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Resilience Activities In ASHRAE

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Helping buildings and their systems withstand and recover from natural disasters requires a lot of technical knowledge. Here, ASHRAE has provided resources to help designers make buildings more resilient so they can absorb, recover from and more successfully adapt to adverse events.

ASHRAE Journal

pdf_icon.png Engineer's Notebook: Building Resilience for the MEP Engineer

Building Industry Statement on Resilience

Leaders of America’s design and construction industry, including ASHRAE, released a report on progress made on the resilience front since the Resilience Building Coalition announced the Building Industry Statement on Resilience two years ago. The Resilience Building Coalition also released a set of guiding principles to help the building industry adopt resilient design and policies. These include developing and advocating for codes and policies that advance resilience; developing “whole-systems resilient design” approaches for the built environment; and providing guidance, beyond the baseline life-safety codes, that recognizes the importance of fortifying property for individual and community resilience.

pdf_icon.png Industry Statement on Resilience

pdf_icon.png Preparing to Thrive: The Building Industry Statement on Resilience

ASHRAE Position Documents


pdf_icon.png ASHRAE and CIBSE – Resiliency in the Built Environment (PDF) (Reaffirmed by the CIBSE Technology Committee, June 26, 2022)

pdf_icon.png Combustion of Solid Fuels and Indoor Air Quality in Primarily Developing Countries (Reaffirmed July 2019 )

pdf_icon.png Filtration and Air Cleaning (PDF) (Reaffirmed February 2021)

pdf_icon.png Indoor Air Quality (PDF) (Updated July 2020)

pdf_icon.png Limiting Indoor Mold and Dampness in Buildings (PDF) (Reaffirmed June 2018)


In Process (Proposed or Revision)


Estimated Approval Date

Climate Change
(Updated June 2018 )

No revision currently in works

Energy Efficiency in Buildings
(Updated November 2019 )

No revision currently in works

Indoor Carbon Dioxide (Proposed)

Fall 2021

Infectious Aerosols

Early 2022

Filtration and Air Cleaning
Mid 2022

Limiting Indoor Mold and Dampness

Early 2022

  • Standards


    See Titles, Purposes, and Scopes All Standards

    Standards Development Process

    ASHRAE Standards can be purchased through the ASHRAE Online Bookstore.

    ASHRAE Guideline 0-2013 – The Commissioning Process (published 2019)

    ASHRAE Guideline 0.2-2015 - The Commissioning Process for Existing Systems and Assemblies

    ASHRAE Guideline 1.4-2019 – Procedures for Preparing Facility Systems Manuals

    ASHRAE Guideline 29-2019 – Guideline for Risk Management of Public Health and Safety in Buildings
    Revision committee approved January 28, 2015 with the same TPS. 

    Guideline 32-2018 - Sustainable, High Performance Operations & Maintenance

    GPC 34P - Energy Guideline for Historical Buildings (published 2019)

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15-2019 –Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-2017 - Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size

    ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2020 - Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2019 - Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality

    ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2019 - Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.4-2019 - Energy Standard for Data Centers

    ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 100-2018 - Energy Efficiency in Existing Buildings

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 105-2014 - Standard Methods of Determining, Expressing and Comparing Building Energy Performance and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 135-2020 -BACnet - A Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 147-2019 - Reducing the Release of Halogenated Refrigerants from Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Equipment and Systems

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 160-2016 - Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 169-2020 - Climatic Data for Building Design Standards

    ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE 170-2021 – Ventilation of Health Care Facilities

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 171-2017 – Method of Test of Seismic Restraint Devices for HVAC&R Equipment

    ANSI/ASHRAE/ACCA 180-2018 - Standard Practice for Inspection and Maintenance of Commercial-Building HVAC Systems

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 185.1-2020 – Method of Testing UVC Lights for Use in Air Handling Units or Air Ducts to Inactivate Airborne Microorganisms

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 185.2-2020 –Method of Testing Ultraviolet Lamps for Use in HVAC&R Units or Air Ducts to Inactivate Microorganisms on Irradiated Surfaces

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 188-2015 - Legionellosis: Risk Management for Building Water Systems

    ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES 189.1-2020 - Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

    ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE 189.3-2017 - Design, Construction and Operation of Sustainable High Performance Health Care Facilities

    SPC 191P- Standard for the Efficient Use of Water in Building Mechanical System

    Standard 201-2016 (RA2020) - Facility Smart Grid Information Model

    ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 202-2018 - Commissioning Process for Buildings and Systems

  • Technical Committees

    ASHRAE Technical Committees consist of people who have a recognized proficiency in a specific field of interest. Links are provided below to each applicable Technical Committee.

    See Scopes for All Technical Committees

    1.12 Moisture Management in Buildings

    2.1 Physiology and Human Environment

    2.3 Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal Equipment

    2.4 Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal Equipment

    2.5 Global Climate Change

    2.7 Seismic and Wind Resistant Design

    2.8 Building Environmental Impacts and Sustainability

    2.9 Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment

    2.10 Resilience and Security

    3.6 Water Treatment

    4.2 Climatic Information

    4.3 Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration

    4.4 Building Materials and Building Envelope Performance

    4.5 Fenestration

    4.10 Indoor Environmental Modeling

    5.6 Control of Fire and Smoke

    5.9 Enclosed Vehicular Facilities

    6.7 Solar Energy Utilization

    7.1 Integrated Building Design

    7.3 Operation and Maintenance Management

    7.5 Smart Building Systems

    7.6 Building Energy Performance

    7.9 Building Commissioning

    9.1 Large Building Air-Conditioning Systems

    9.2 Industrial Air Conditioning

    9.3 Transportation Air Conditioning

    9.6 Healthcare Facilities

    9.7 Educational Facilities

    9.8 Large Building Air-Conditioning Applications

    9.9 Mission Critical Facilities, Data Centers, Technology Spaces and Electronic Equipment

    9.10 Laboratory Systems

    9.11 Clean Spaces

    9.12 Tall Buildings

    10.7 Commercial Food and Beverage Refrigeration Equipment

    MTG.OBB Occupant Behavior in Buildings

    See the complete list of TCs

  • ASHRAE Handbook Chapters

    2015 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Applications


    3. Commercial and Public Buildings
    7. Educational Facilities
    8. Health Care Facilities
    11. Mass Transit


    14. Industrial Air Conditioning
    15. Enclosed Vehicular Facilities
    19. Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities
    23. Museums, Galleries, Archives, and Libraries
    24. Environmental Control for Animals and Plants
    27. Power Plants
    28. Nuclear Facilities
    29. Mine Ventilation and Air Conditioning
    31. Ventilation of the Industrial Environment
    32. Industrial Local Exhaust


    35. Solar Energy Use


    36. Energy Use and Management
    37. Owning and Operating Costs
    38. Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing
    39. Operation and Maintenance Management
    41. Building Energy Monitoring
    42. Supervisory Control Strategies and Optimization
    43. HVAC Commissioning


    44. Building Envelopes
    46. Air Cleaners for Gaseous Contaminants
    47. Design and Application of Controls
    49. Water Treatment: Deposition, Corrosion,
    and Biological Control
    51. Snow Melting and Freeze Protection
    53. Fire and Smoke Control
    55. Seismic- and Wind-Resistant Design
    58. Integrated Building Design
    59. HVAC Security
    60. Ultraviolet Air and Surface Treatment
    61. Smart Building Systems
    62. Moisture Management in Buildings

    2014 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration


    1. Halocarbon Refrigeration Systems
    2. Ammonia Refrigeration Systems
    3. Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Systems
    9. Refrigerant Containment, Recovery, Recycling, and Reclamation


    10. Insulation Systems for Refrigerant Piping
    13. Secondary Coolants in Refrigeration Systems
    15. Retail Food Store Refrigeration and Equipment
    16. Food Service and General Commercial Refrigeration Equipment
    17. Household Refrigerators and Freezers


    19. Thermal Properties of Foods
    20. Cooling and Freezing Times of Foods
    21. Commodity Storage Requirements
    22. Food Microbiology and Refrigeration
    23. Refrigerated-Facility Design
    24. Refrigerated-Facility Loads


    25. Cargo Containers, Rail Cars, Trailers, and Trucks
    26. Marine Refrigeration
    27. Air Transport


    28. Methods of Precooling Fruits, Vegetables, and Cut Flowers
    29. Industrial Food-Freezing Systems
    30. Meat Products
    31. Poultry Products
    32. Fishery Products
    33. Dairy Products
    34. Eggs and Egg Products
    35. Deciduous Tree and Vine Fruit
    36. Citrus Fruit, Bananas, and Subtropical Fruit
    37. Vegetables
    38. Fruit Juice Concentrates and Chilled Juice Products
    39. Beverages
    40. Processed, Precooked, and Prepared Foods
    41. Bakery Products
    42. Chocolates, Candies, Nuts, Dried Fruits, and Dried Vegetables


    43. Ice Manufacture
    44. Ice Rinks
    45. Concrete Dams and Subsurface Soils
    46. Refrigeration in the Chemical Industry


    47. Cryogenics
    48. Ultralow-Temperature Refrigeration
    49. Biomedical Applications of Cryogenic Refrigeration

    2013 ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals


    1.   Psychrometrics
    2.   Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles
    3.   Fluid Flow
    4.   Heat Transfer
    5.   Two-Phase Flow
    6.   Mass Transfer
    7.   Fundamentals of Control
    8.   Sound and Vibration


    9.  Thermal Comfort
    10.  Indoor Environmental Health
    11.  Air Contaminants
    12.  Odors
    13.  Indoor Environmental Modeling


    14.  Climatic Design Information
    15.  Fenestration
    16.  Ventilation and Infiltration
    17.  Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations
    18.  Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations
    19.  Energy Estimating and Modeling Methods


    20.  Space Air Diffusion
    21.  Duct Design
    22.  Pipe Sizing
    23.  Insulation for Mechanical Systems
    24.  Airflow Around Buildings


    25.  Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Fundamentals
    26.  Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Material Properties
    27.  Heat, Air, and Moisture Control in Building Assemblies—Examples


    28.  Combustion and Fuels
    29.  Refrigerants
    30.  Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerants
    31.  Physical Properties of Secondary Coolants (Brines)
    32.  Sorbents and Desiccants
    33.  Physical Properties of Materials


    34.  Energy Resources
    35.  Sustainability
    36.  Measurement and Instruments
    37.  Abbreviations and Symbols
    38.  Units and Conversions
    39.  Codes and Standards

    2012 ASHRAE Handbook—Systems and Equipment


    1.   HVAC System Analysis and Selection
    2.   Decentralized Cooling and Heating
    3.   Central Cooling and Heating
    4.   Air Handling and Distribution
    5.   In-Room Terminal Systems
    6.   Panel Heating and Cooling
    7.   Combined Heat and Power Systems
    8.   Combustion Turbine Inlet Cooling
    9.   Applied Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Systems
    10. Small Forced-Air Heating and Cooling Systems
    11. Steam Systems
    12. District Heating and Cooling
    13. Hydronic Heating and Cooling
    14. Condenser Water Systems
    15. Medium- and High-Temperature Water Heating
    16. Infrared Radiant Heating
    17. Ultraviolet Lamp Systems
    18. Variable-Refrigerant-Flow Systems


    19. Duct Construction
    20. Room Air Distribution Equipment
    21. Fans
    22. Humidifiers
    23. Air-Cooling and Dehumidifying Coils
    24. Desiccant Dehumidification and Pressure- Drying Equipment
    25. Mechanical Dehumidifiers and Related Components
    26. Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Equipment
    27. Air-Heating Coils
    28. Unit Ventilators, Unit Heaters, and Makeup Air Units
    29. Air Cleaners for Particulate Contaminants
    30. Industrial Gas Cleaning and Air Pollution Control Equipment


    31. Automatic Fuel-Burning Equipment
    32. Boilers
    33. Furnaces
    34. Residential In-Space Heating Equipment
    35. Chimney, Vent, and Fireplace Systems
    36. Hydronic Heat-Distributing Units and Radiators
    37. Solar Energy Equipment


    38. Compressors
    39. Condensers
    40. Cooling Towers
    41. Evaporative Air-Cooling Equipment
    42. Liquid Coolers
    43. Liquid-Chilling Systems


    44. Centrifugal Pumps
    45. Motors, Motor Controls, and Variable-Speed Drives
    46. Pipes, Tubes, and Fittings
    47. Valves
    48. Heat Exchangers


    49. Unitary Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
    50. Room Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners


    51. Thermal Storage
    52. Codes and Standards



These Research Project Final Reports document the results of the research project, and are approved by the sponsoring Technical Committee.

ASHRAE members have free access through the Members-Only Research Projects Final Reports site.

Non-members can purchase and download individual Research Reports for $30 each through ASHRAE's Online Bookstore.

The selected projects have been divided into several categories of Resilience Aspects:

  • Efficiency

    1327-RP -- Flow Regime and Pressure Drop Determination for Two-Phase Ammonia Upward Flow in Various Riser Sizes
    April 2007 – January 2016

    1385-RP -- Development of Design Tools for Surface Water Heat Pump Systems (SWHP)
    September 2009 – January 2016

    1408-RP -- The Effect of Lining Length on the Insertion Loss of Acoustical Duct Liner in Sheet Metal Ductwork
    September 2008 – January 2016

    1414-RP -- Update of U-Factors, Solar Heat Gain Coefficients and Visible  Transmittances of Standard Fenestration Units Made from Representative Fenestration Frame and Glazing Systems in the Fenestration Chapter of the Handbook of Fundamentals
    September 2015 – November 2016

    1455-RP -- Advanced Control Sequences for HVAC Systems – Phase I Air Distribution and Terminal Systems
    April 2009 – January 2015

    1467-RP -- Balancing Latent Heat Load between Display Cases and Store Comfort Cooling
    September 2009 – January 2015

    1535-RP -- A Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Correlation for Low Air-Side Reynolds Number Applications of Compact Heat Exchangers
    April 2012 – January 2016

    1556-RP -- Characterization of Liquid Refrigerant Flow Emerging from a Flooded Evaporator Tube Bundle
    September 2012 – February 2016

    1564-RP -- Measurement of Oil Retention in the Microchannel Heat Exchangers
    October 2011 – January 2016

    1587-RP -- Control Loop Performance Assessment
    April 2014 – March 2016

    1607-RP -- Design and Utilization of Thermal Energy Storage to Increase the Ability of Power Systems to Support Renewable Energy Resources
    April 2015 – September 2016

    1608-RP -- Development of a Load-Based Method of Test for Light Commercial Unitary HVAC
    January 2014 – December 2015

    1588-RP -- Representative Layer-by-Layer Descriptions for Fenestration Systems with Specified Bulk Properties such as U-factor and SHGC 
    September 2013 – January  2016

    1602-RP -- Thermal-Fluid Behavior of Mixed Refrigerants for Cryogenic Applications
    December 2012 – January 2016

    1627-RP -- An Evaluation of the Actual Energy Performance of Small Office and K-12 School Buildings Designed in Accordance with the 30% ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides
    September 2014 – February 2016

    1629-RP -- Testing and Modeling Energy Performance of Active Chilled Beam Systems  
    December 2013 – May 2016

    1634-RP -- Guide for Sustainable Refrigerated Facilities and Refrigeration Systems
    March 2014 – August 2016

    1641-RP -- Effect of Unsaturated Fluorocarbon Contaminants on the Reliability and Performance of HVAC&R Equipment
    September 2013 –  January 2016

    1651-RP -- Development of Maximum Technically Achievable Energy Targets for Commercial Buildings (Ultra Low Energy

    1677-RP   Measurements and Prediction of Waterside Fouling Performance of Internally Enhanced Tubes in Cooling Tower Applications
    September 2013 – February 2018

    1681-RP  -- Low Energy Lighting Heat Gain Distribution in Buildings
    September 2014 – April 2016; Iowa State University; Principal Investigator, Ran Liu; TC 4.1, Load Calculation Data and Procedures

    1682-RP -- Study to Identify CFD Models for Use in Determining HVAC Duct Fitting Loss Coefficients
    June 2014 – June 2016

    1696-RP -- Thermal and Moisture Transport Property Values for New Building and Insulating Materials
    September 2015 – August 2018

    1699-RP -- Update Climatic Design Data in Chapter 14 of the 2017 Handbook of Fundamentals
    June 2014 – May 2016

    1702-RP -- Case Studies to Test Performance Measurement Protocols (PMP)
    September 2015 – August 2017

    1705-RP -- Investigation of Airside Fouling on Outdoor Heat Exchangers
    November 2015 – October 2017

    1724-RP -- Study the HVAC System Photodegradation  caused by the Low Level UVC Light Irradiance Used for Coil Maintenance and Air Stream Disinfection
    April 2015 – September 2016

    1766-RP -- Development of a Unified Tool for Analysis of Room Loads and Conditions
    December 2015 – November 2016

  • IAQ

    1284-RP -- Develop a Standard for Testing and Stating the Efficiency of Industrial Pulse Cleaned Dust Collectors
    April 2006 – June 2016

    1450-RP -- Transport of Contaminants from Garages Attached or Integral to Low-Rise Residential Buildings
    December 2013 – May 2016

    1604-RP -- Demand Controlled Filtration for Cleanrooms
    September 2011 – March 2016

    1624-RP -- Effective Energy-Efficient School Classroom Ventilation for Temperate  Zones
    June 2014 – February 2017

    1631-RP -- Countertop Commercial Appliance Emissions
    April 2014 – January 2016

    1635-RP -- Simplified Procedure for Calculating Exhaust/Intake Separation Distances
    May 2014 – January 2016

    1663-RP  -- Residential IAQ Guide
    September 2015 – February 2017

    1712-RP Design Guide for Dedicated Outdoor-Air Systems
    June 2014 – November 2016

    1747-RP -- Implementation of RP-1547 CO2-based Demand Controlled Ventilation for Multiple Zone HVAC Systems in Direct Digital Control Systems
    September 2015 – February 2017

  • Operation

    1590-RP -- Implementation of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Principles into Higher Education as an Integrated Decision Making Tool
    September 2009 – January 2016

    1615-RP -- Fault Detection and Diagnostic (FDD) Methods for Supermarkets – Phase I
    April 2015 – June 2016

    1746-RP -- Validation of RP-1455 Advanced Control Sequences for HVAC Systems – Air Distribution and Terminal Systems
    January 2015 – May 2016

  • Health/Comfort

    1262-RP -- Relate Air Quality and Other Factors to Comfort and Health Related Symptoms Reported by Passengers and Crew on Commercial Transport Aircraft (Part 2)  April 2006 – June 2016

    1399-RP -- Survey of Particle Production Rates from Process Activities in Pharmaceutical and Biological Cleanrooms
    April 2014 – March 2016

    1529-RP -- Full- Frequency Numerical Modeling of Sound Transmission in and Radiation from Lined Ducts
    September 2012 – January 2016

    1546-RP -- Expansion and Update ADPI for Overhead Mixing Systems in both Cooling and Heating
    September 2012 – January 2016

    1630-RP -- Update the Scientific Evidence for Specifying Lower Limit Relative Humidity Levels for Comfort, Health and IEQ in Occupied Spaces 
    September 2014 – January 2016

    1738-RP -- Field Measurements and Modeling of UVC Cooling Coil Irradiation for HVAC Energy Use Reduction
    January 2015 – May 2016

  • Safety

    1447-RP -- Performance of Pressurized Stairwells with Open Doors

    1507-RP -- Binary Refrigerant Flame Boundary Concentrations

    1569-RP -- CFD Study of Hydraulic Shock in Two-Phase Anhydrous Ammonia

    RP-1580 -- Study of Input Parameters for Risk Assessment of 2L Flammable Refrigerants in Residential Air Conditioning and Commercial Refrigeration Applications

    RP-1583 -- Assessment of Burning Velocity Test Methods

    RP-1584 -- Developing Alternative Approaches to Predicting the Laminar Burning Speed of Refrigerants Using the Minimum Ignition Energy

    1692-RP --  Effects of Shielding on the Wind Loads on Roof Mounted Equipment

    1717-RP -- Improve Accuracy and Reproducibility of ASTM-E681 Test Methods for Flammability Limit Measurement of 2L Flammable Refrigerants
    April 2015 – September 2016

    Co-RP 2 – Revised Guidance for Physical & Cyber HVAC Security; Responsible Organization: CIBSE (Charted Institution of Building Services Engineers – U.K.). Status: On-going

    Co-RP 4 - Investigation of Ignition Temperature (Hot surface and Auto Ignition) for 2L Refrigerants; Responsible Organization: AHRTI (Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Technology Institute). Status: On-going

  • Refrigerants

    Projects Related to A2L and A3 Flammable Refrigerants

    RP-1806 -- Flammable Refrigerants Post-ignition Risk Assessment

    RP-1807 -- Guide to A2L Refrigerant Handling and System Installation and Servicing – Phase 1: Review Existing practice requirements

    RP-1808 -- Guide to A2L Refrigerant Handling and System Installation and Servicing – Phase 2: Guide Development

    Other ASHRAE A2L Research

    RTAR 1728 -- Development of Models for Production of Oil Refrigerant Mixture Properties of Low GWP Refrigerants and Synthetic Compressor Oils. Status: Research Topic Acceptance Request (RTAR) approved. TC working on work statement.

    RTAR 1731 -- Heat Transfer Performance of Medium Pressure Alternative Lower GWP Refrigerants in a Flooded Evaporator Comprising an Enhanced Tube Bundle. Status: RTAR approved. TC working on work statement.

    RTAR 1773 -- Ignition Potential from Electrical Devices in Commercial and Residential Applications using 2L Refrigerants. Status: RTAR approved. TC working on work statement. 

    RP-1507 -- Binary Refrigerant Flame Boundary Concentrations. Status: Active Project


Special Publications


AEDG – Zero Energy


Special Reports from ASHRAE on Environmental Security
After 9/11, ASHRAE published Risk Management Guidance for Health and Safety under Extraordinary Incidents on January 12, 2002. A year later an expanded version of the document was published to include Environmental Security.

Risk Management Guidance for Health and Safety under Extraordinary Incidents (January 12, 2002):

pdf_icon.png Presidential Study Group: Final Report (PDF) (33.7 KB)

Risk Management Guidance for Health, Safety and Environmental Security under Extraordinary Incidents (January 26, 2003):

pdf_icon.png Executive Summary (PDF) (61.9 KB)

pdf_icon.png Full Document (419 KB)